Special features of designing a correction program for adolescents who have signs of psychosomatic disorders
The relevance of the research is related to the need for studying the character of psychosomatic disorders in adolescence, which is insufficiently investigated and requires more in-depth research, in particular designing a comprehensive program that includes a system of training exercises to overcome psychosomatic disorders. The problem of studying psychosomatic relationships is one of the most difficult problems of modern psychology and medicine, despite the fact that the close connection between mental and somatic has been studied for several centuries. Mental trauma is a leading cause of neuroses formation and progress, its pathogenic significance is determined by the complex interaction with many other factors being a result of an individual’s life, formation of his body and personality, especially in adolescence. The subject of the research is to study special features of psychosomatic disorders, as well as to design a program for adolescents with signs of neurotic disorders. The subject matter of the research is the peculiarities of psychosomatic disorders manifestation and neurotic signs in adolescence. The article presents a theoretical analysis of modern approaches in psychology to the study of psychosomatic disorders peculiarities, their classification, considering the signs of neurotic disorders in adolescence. The work analyzes age characteristics of psychosomatic disorders in adolescence. Modern adolescents are exposed to various stressors, to the impact of audiovisual information, school overload, extra classes, exams, and a special problem that is a change in quality of life and prevalence of alcoholism, smoking, drug addiction, especially drug addiction among adolescents. The complex of these factors has negative consequences both on a psychological and physical level. Most authors who study the causes of psychosomatic illnesses recognize the important role of parents in the development of mentally and physically healthy children. Many studies highlight the role of early mother-child relationships in the formation of psychosomatic pathology. Various violations of this relationship usually lead to abnormalities in a child’s development. (M. Mahler, E. T. Eidemiller, Yustitskis, D. Winnicott, M. Klein). The results of an empirical study aimed at identifying signs of psychosomatic disorders are considered. The following methods were used: observation, questionnaires, and such methods as diagnosis of neurotic disorders in adolescence (DND), diagnosis of the level of school anxiety by Phillips, “Non-existent animal” by M.Z. Drukarevich. The peculiarities of designing and testing the correction program, which is aimed at reducing the signs of neurotic manifestations in adolescence, are revealed. Objectives of the correction program are: searching for interaction of adolescents with society, finding and testing skills of effective response to external stimuli; increasing the level of self-esteem; removal of emotional tension; reducing anxiety. The results confirm the possibility of reducing the signs of neurotic manifestations of adolescents and help to delay or completely stop a possible personality disorder.
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